Volume 24, Issue 1, 2001

Ties & Bonds, 16-25
Wellman, Barry
Civic Community, Political Participation and Political Trust of Ethnic Groups, 26-41
Fennema, Meindert, Tillie, Jean
We hope in this article to bridge the gap between all those researchers who in the trail of Almond and Verba (1963) have investigated the relationship between civic culture and political participation and those that are primarily interested in multicultural democracy. In earlier research we have found a correlation between political participation and political trust of ethnic minorities on the one hand and the network of ethnic associations on the other. (Fennema/Tillie, 1999) In this paper we treat the network of ethnic organizations a proxy for civic community. It is a long established assumption that voluntary associations create social trust, which, in turn can spill over into political trust. But if voluntary associations generate trust why would interlocking directorates among such organizations add to it? Our answer is that trust can travel trough a network of interlocking directorates and by doing so increase. Civic community building is the creation of trust among organizations.

Bottom up, increased social trust may generate political trust because the citizens feel that their leaders are competent to monitor local government. The rank and file sees their leaders as their agents. Top down, interlocking directors can spread the political trust they themselves have within the ethnic community. By doing so, they act as an agent for the local government. In both cases the interlocking directors have an important broker function.

Finally we discuss whether this civic community is generated by factors that stem from the political opportunity structure in the host country or whether more weight should be given to those cultural factors that originate in the country of origin.
Regional Actor Networks Between Social Capital and Regional Governance, 42-67
Fürst, Dietrich, Schubert, Herbert, Rudolph, Ansgar, Spieckermann, Holger
The development of regions depends on the social capital of regional actors. Reliable relations between actors help to move in a personal network. Social capital is a connecting bridge supporting the exchange of resources between actors. According to Coleman there are two basic principles which have to be maintained in order to create sufficiently social capital: "closure" and stability of social networks. Only in social networks with closure the actors may effectively combine their resources in collective sanctions. Examples for closure in social networks are cliques, social circles and multiplex relations. In the center of the analysis is the interaction between these patterns of relations and the influence of actors on regional decision processes. Based on empirical data collected from elite actors in the region of annover/Germany we show that closure of social structures facilitates the creation and maintenance of social capital in actor networks. In contrast to hierarchical instruments such as plans or promotional programs cooperation models which are based on the understanding and self-control of the actors concerned gain more and more importance in regional development. This cooperation is supported and coordinated by "regional management". A prerequisite condition for self control is a network between the actors, which does not a priori follow certain aims. It is supposed: If "purpose-open" networks are successful, they are a productive collective property. Therefore they belong to the infrastructure of a region and strengthen its social capital. Regional management may use this productive collective property. But it may and has to form and support regional networks as well in order to improve the chances of development of a region by cooperation. With the example of the region of Hannover/Germany the paper shows information about regional networks that can be gained in practice, and it presents interpretation possibilities with regard to regional development of the network structures found and describes starting points for action based on this interpretation.
Phone notebooks as data on personal networks, 53-61
Lonkila, Markku
This study assesses the nature of data on personal networks derived both from personal paper phone notebooks as well as from the mobile phone electronic notebook. It is illustrated by data on author’s personal network between 1993 and 2000 and in 2002. The text emphasizes the subjective and biographical aspects of this data and suggests that studies based on mobile phone network data may contribute to the literature on the interaction between communication technology and sociability.
The Prestige of Ph.D. Granting Departments of Sociology: A Simple Network Approach, 68-77
Hanneman, Robert A.
Data on the Ph.D. origins of faculty employed in Ph.D. granting departments of Sociology at 1993 and 1999 are examined. Treating these data as an exchange network allows simple network analysis tools to be used to rank programs in terms of adjacency, centrality, and efficient network size. Considerable inequality in the distribution of placement and adjacency at both years is found. Prestige elite communities are identified in patterns of reciprocated hiring. There are substantial correlations in rankings by different aspects of network position, over time, and between network and survey research methods. However, network methods allow a more complex and interesting portrait of the prestige hierarchy that is more clearly structural and positional, rather than perceptual.
The informal organizational chart in organizations: An approach from the social network analysis, 78-91
Molina, José Luis
In the early 20th century the Hawthorne experiments began a line of research centred on the analysis of informal relationships as a source of influence in organizational environments. The social network analysis at the present allows us to get closer to the structure of relationships in an organization in a variety of ways. Broadly speaking, this structure can resemble the informal chart. In this way it is possible to carry out a non-metaphorical analysis of the informal structures of relationships.
Volume 24, Issue 2, 2001
Calendar, 1
Sunbelt 2002, 2
Announcements, 3
Ties & Bonds, 4
Wellman, Barry
Estimating the Ripple Effect of a Disaster, 30-34
Bernard, H. Russell, Killworth, Peter D., Johnson, Eugene C., Shelley, Gene A., McCarty, Christopher
We apply our network scale-up model to estimate the number of people in the U.S. who know someone who experienced the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the number of people who know someone who knows someone who experienced those attacks.
P-Systems: A Structural Model for Kinship Studies, 35-46
Harary, Frank, White, Douglas R.
Several mathematical models have been proposed for kinship studies. We propose an alternate structural model designed to be so simple logically and intuitively that it can be understood and used by anyone, with a minimum of complication. It is called a P-system, which is short for parental system. The P-system incorporates the best features of each of the previous models of kinship: a single relation of parentage, graphs embedded within the nodes of other graphs, and segregation of higher level descent and marriage structure from nuclear family structure. The latter is also the key conceptual distinction used by Lévi-Strauss (1969) in the theory of marriage alliance. While a P-system is used to represent a concrete network of kinship and marriage relationships, this network also constitutes a system in the sense that it contains multiple levels where each level is a graph in which each node contains another graph structure. In sum, the connections between the nodes at the outer level in a P-system are especially useful in the analysis of marriage and descent, while at inner level we can describe how individuals are embedded in the kinship structure.
The Minimally Nonplanar Graph of a Mexican Power Network, 47-53
Harary, Frank, Gil-Mendieta, Jorge, Schmidt, Samuel
Although the Mexican Power Network in 1990 contained just eleven influential politicians, the graph G, in which the edges indicate political alliances, was too complicated to show its structure clearly because it had 23 crossings of pairs of edges. In an attempt to simplify G, we found a drawing with only one crossing. We present a mathematical proof that G can not be simplified further.
The Urban Communes Data Set: a Gold Mine for Secondary Analysis, 54-58
Martin, John Levi, Yeung, King-To, Zablocki, Benjamin D.
Social Network Measures of Parent-Child Exchange: The Applications in Taiwan and the Philippines, 59-75
Agree, Emily M., Biddlecom, Ann E., Valente, Thomas W., Chang, Ming-cheng
This study draws on social network measures to describe complex flows of resources between older parents and their adult children. Using data from the 1989 Taiwan Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly and the 1996 Philippine Elderly Survey, we find that more than 80 percent of older Taiwanese and more than 97 percent of Filipino elderly are actively engaged in transfers with their children, yet few older persons are engaged in all of the possible transfer activity with children. Redistributive transfer patterns, where older parents receive resources from one or more children and then give resources to another child, characterize about 10 percent of older parent networks in Taiwan and 64 percent in the Philippines. In the majority of these cases, the older parents are involved in more than one redistributive flow with children. Most of these redistributive flows take place across household boundaries rather than exclusively within or outside of the household.
Social Network Centrality and Sexual Experience Among a Household Sample of Urban African American Adolescents, 76-81
Ellen, Jonathan M., Dolcini, Margaret M., Bir, Natasha D., Harper, Gary W., Watson, Susan, Valente, Thomas
Little is known about whether adolescents' sexual behavior is influenced by their place in their social networks. Adolescents who are central to a network may be affected differently by peer norms than a more peripheral network member. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that urban African American youth who are well-integrated into their peer networks, i.e., those with higher closeness centrality, would be more likely to be sexually experienced. The sample consisted of a probability based household telephone sample of African American adolescents (index participants) and three of their social friends. We enrolled 86 index adolescents and 111 close friends. We did not find an association between closeness centrality and sexual experience among the index adolescents. However, we did find an association among the friends (p<.05). Fifty percent of those with low closeness scores were sexually experienced while 74% of those with high closeness scores were sexually experienced. Adolescents' location in their social world is associated with sexual behavior among the close friends of a household sample of urban African American youth.
The Postmodern Adventure: Science, Technology, and Cultural Studies at the Third Millennium, 82
McCarron, Gary
Abstracts - Sunbelt 2001, 83-115

Volume 24, Issue 3, 2001

Calendar, 2-3
Announcements, 6-28
September 11, 2001, 29
Everett, Martin
The Rise (and Possible Fall) of Networked Individualism, 30-32
Wellman, Barry
I Decided to Go Anyway, 33-35
Friedman, Sam
From Whole Cloth: Making up the terrorist network, 36-42
M.D., Richard Rothenberg
Little firm information exists about the global terrorist network, and the type of data used by network analysts—testimony of participants—is not available. Relying on newspaper and other media reports, some general conjectures about the network features of the terrorist organization can be offered: It may well be characterized by a high degree of connectivity and considerable redundancy. The dynamic units are probably small, with high personnel turnover and considerable structural equivalence. The network is not ‘managed’ in the strict hierarchical sense, but a central leadership appears to plan major moves, to provide training, finance and logistical support, but to permit considerable autonomy at the local level. Such structure contrasts markedly with typical governmental hierachies. Success against terrorism may be contingent, in part, on governments’ ability to set aside formal structure and match the fluidity and nimbleness of terrorist networks.
Mapping Networks of Terrorist Cells, 43-52
Krebs, Valdis
This paper looks at the difficulty in mapping covert networks. Analyzing networks after an event is fairly easy for prosecution purposes. Mapping covert networks to prevent criminal activity is much more difficult. We examine the network surrounding the tragic events of September 11th, 2001. Through public data we are able to map a portion of the network centered around the 19 dead hijackers. This map gives us some insight into the terrorist organization, yet it is incomplete. Suggestions for further work and research are offered.
The Network Paradigm Applied to Criminal Organisations: Theoretical nitpicking or a relevant doctrine for investigators? Recent developments in the Netherlandsk, 53-65
Klerks, Peter
The orthodox organized crime doctrine that focuses on more or less stable and hierarchical criminal organizations is slowly giving way to new and more sophisticated paradigmata, such as the enterprise metaphor and the concept of fluid social networks. This has certain consequences for control strategies. Thinking about crime more in terms of opportunity, of risk mechanisms, of personal motives, co-optation and seduction demands a willingness to depart from familiar paths and usual suspects. In the Netherlands, an unprecedented crisis of confidence in law enforcement in the mid-1990s produced the organisational and intellectual space for more elaborate approaches to organised crime. As a result at least two dozen academics have started working with and in Dutch law enforcement in some capacity, many of them with a direct involvement in operational matters. A multitude of solid organized crime analyses and studies have appeared, which confirm that the network mode of organisation between people and functional entities is far better adapted to modern modes of collaboration, trading and communication than the traditional hierarchic structures. Sophisticated network analysis methods need to enable investigators to identify positions of power and to attribute these to specific individual traits or to structural roles that these individuals fulfill. A unique position involving certain intermediate contacts for example can allow someone to monopolize the connection between two networks. Social network mapping can show what material resources someone can mobilise and which information he has access to. It can also introduce dynamics into the rigid and 'frozen' understanding of social structures that traditional organisational diagrams convey. Processes of recruitment become clearer by looking at previous connections, as does the transfer of knowledge and criminal innovations. Innovating criminal analysis alone however will not suffice. Ultimately, controlling organized crime can only be done succesfully through more flexible modes of organisation and operation, thus creating effective law enforcement and intelligence networks to deal with criminal networks.
Terrorists/Liberators: Researching and dealing with adversary social networks, 66-78
Meter, Karl M. van
We first describe the recent evolution in the definition of the term “terrorism” following the 11 September 2001 attacks. We presented two specific types of “link analysis” methods used to analyze adversary networks. Ralph McGehee, of the CIA, developed the village survey method used in Thailand in the mid-1960s. We present in detail the evolution of “traffic analysis” (communication link analysis) from its description in World War II US Army manuals to CIA use in the late 1960s against Eastern diplomats in the US and against rebels in Latin American, to MI5 use since the 1970s against the IRA in Northern Ireland (and vice versa), and to modern extra-judicial use by police, intelligence and private parties for “non-intrusive” telephone surveillance. This presentation of traffic analysis includes publicly-available counter-measures that have been developed over time. In the last section, we present Peter Klerk’s doctoral thesis on the analysis Dutch criminal networks and strategies against them, including targeting their weakness associated with queue analysis of key network position replacement.
Destabilizing Networks, 79-92
Carley, Kathleen M., Lee, Ju-Sung, Krackhardt, David
The world we live in is a complex socio-technical system. Although social, organizational and policy analysts have long recognized that groups, organizations, institutions and the societies in which they are embedded are complex systems; it is only recently that we have had the tools for systematically thinking about, representing, modelling and analyzing these systems. These tools include multi-agent computer models and the body of statistical tools and measures in social networks.

This paper uses social network analysis and multi-agent models to discuss how to destabilize networks. In addition, we illustrate the potential difficulty in destabilizing networks that are large, distributed, and composed of individuals linked on a number of socio-demographic dimensions. The specific results herein are generated, and our ability to think through such systems is enhanced, by using a multi-agent network approach to complex systems. Such an illustration is particularly salient in light of the tragic events of September 11, 2001.
Applying Social Network Analysis Concepts to Military C4ISR Architectures, 93-103
Dekker, Anthony
We discuss the application of Social Network Analysis concepts to military C4ISR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence, Surveillance, & Reconnaissance) architectures. In particular, we describe what we call the FINC methodology, which calculates a number of simple metrics for comparing and quantifying organisational network aspects of C4ISR architectures. This facilitates a more complete evaluation of the costs and benefits of various organisational structures. We have constructed a Java-based tool called CAVALIER, to carry out this and other forms of Social Network Analysis. After outlining the methodology, we apply it to a case study relating to a (hypothetical) military-led humanitarian assistance mission.
Rapoport at Ninety, 104-107
Spencer, Metta
A few months ago Science for Peace celebrated Anatol Rapoport’s ninetieth birthday. I couldn’t go, so during the August heat wave I took my tape recorder and paid a social call instead. Anatol’s wife Gwen welcomed me again into the house that first became familiar to me in the early eighties, when Anatol was president of Science for Peace and the directors used to meet there, planning a peace and conflict studies program at the University of Toronto.

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